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One of the characteristics of De senectute which must give any commentator trouble is its allusive quality. Piel, Joseph M. Capitollo xxxbiij. Standard of Excellence Book 3 is a continuation of the strong performance-centered curriculum of Books 1 and 2. Constantino de Braganga, o Conde de Redondo, D. The part titled "concert flute and piccolo", although singular, requires at least two players since the flute and piccolo parts are simultaneous for much of the suite, and the final movement includes split parts.
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I had come home early from an event in an effort to do something responsible: email. One year ago I left the internet. Another author of note who left the world some interesting studies on India, is Caspar Correa, He made a second voyage to India and there amidst the complications of military duties and the cares of public service, he found time and means to write a most interesting and detailed history of India and its conquests, which embraced a period of fifty-three years, from the time of the discovery of the route to India by sea till the governorship of Jorge Cabral. He made long and exhaustive journeys to the different parts of the dominions about which he was writing, in order to gain first-hand information and to verify for himself the correctness of the facts, localities, and all that he considered indispensable for his work.
Though it was written in the rude style of a soldier who had not frequented a University, it bore the hall-mark of truth and impartiality. The main portion of the work describing the period from till , has all the advantages of contemporary history written by the pen of an intelligent writer.
It is a gossipy account founded on a record compiled by a priest, named Joao Figueira, who accompanied Vasco da Gama. The work is illustrated with paintings and photographs of the Viceroys taken from the pen and ink sketches made by Correa himself. In he occupied himself in re-writing and perfecting his work but death overtook him before he was able to give it the last few touches.
Lenda de treze annos, desde o primeiro descobrimento da India at6 o anno de Parte i, Lisboa, Parte 2, Story of thirteen years from the first dis- covery of India till the year , Part I, Lisbon, Lenda de dezesepte annos acabados no anno de , Parte i, i Story of 17 years ending the year Parte i, Part I, , pages Containing the deeds of the years of Stanley, in In the opinion of A. We do not. Diogo de Couto tells us that he was there almost ten years, or till about , the year in which he finished his Book VIII.
During the time he was in India, he was making investigations both by examining all records and by making zealous enquiries from the captains and noblemen whom he met, in order to write a faithful account of the discoveries and conquests of the Portuguese in India. He had little time left to polish his work and imitate the ancient classic models, for he became tired and ill with continued research and night work and the reading of many papers that he had brought from India.
He died on the 23rd. Pedro in Coimbra. The history was twice only given in complete form to the Press, the first time in , and the second time in The first book was printed twice, once in the lifetime of the author in and the second time in There is no doubt that Fernao Lopes wrote ten books and that the last two were ready for the press' in But in spite of these declarations, copies of the books IX and X are today not to be found. It is quite possible that one day they may re-appear, just as the thirty-one chapters of Book IX have come to light now, being published by Father Wessels.
It must therefore have happened in the Regency of Dom Sebastiao and took place after the death of Castanheda. The elegance of his style is subordinate to the sincerity of his narrative. Though Castanheda does not possess the majesty of the style or the erudition of Joao de Barros, he must be regarded as a greater author- ity as he had first-hand knowledge of what he wrote. Gkispar Correia, p. Like other famous authors and poets of his time, he was a soldier as well as a writer, and was able to describe the battles and methods employed in war- fare with scientific accuracy of facts as well as with the gifted pen of a natural historian.
More impartial than Barros, he points out the errors and even the crimes of his countrymen and disapproves of the wrongs done to India.
Joao de Barros, , was the first State chronicler to write about India. His choice expressions and his pure style have made his writings classic ; he has justly been called the Portuguese Livy. Text in Portuguese, notes in Dutch, edited by Father C. Although he never went to India, he had special facilities for the study of India, for in he became Treasurer of the House of India, Mina and Ceuta, in Lisbon, where he served till In spite of the various official appointments which he received from time to time he never desisted from his literary work, his days being given up to his official duties and his nights to his books.
About , the King accepted his offer to write about India, but before the first Decada was published, he gave to the world some of his minor works. Lisboa Asia by Joam de Barros. Of the deeds which the Portu- guese did in the discovery of the seas and lands of the Orient. Lisbon The second Decada of Joam de Barros. Of the deeds which the Portuguese did in the discovery and conquest of the seas and lands of the Orient. There is a copy of this edition of the third Decada in the Bibliotheca Nacional of Lisbon. The fourth Decada was not published till Dedicada a el Rei D.
Filippe II Nosso Senhor. Reformada, accres- centada e illustrada com notas e taboas geographicas por Joao Baptista Lavanha.
Dedicated to the King D. Filippe II Our Lord. Revised, added to and illustrated with notes and geographical tables by Joao Baptista Lavanha. Ultimately all four Decadas were reprinted in Lisbon in eight volumes in and The first Decada tells us how the Portuguese kingdom was formed, and how the Portuguese set out to make discoveries. The discovery of Africa was due mainly to the enterprise of the Infante Dom Henrique, who sent out expeditions for exploration. Dom Henrique continued making discoveries, while Dom Affonso took charge of the kingdom. During the reign of Dom Joao, and his son, Dom Affonso, Guinea, the Congo territory and the Cape of Good Hope were discovered, an expedition was fitted out to find the route to India, and missionaries were sent to the Congo.
About the same time Christopher Columbus discovered the New World. Here begins a description of the wars which were waged between the various Indian potentates and the Portuguese ; the different cities of the west coast of India, as well as the various kings and princes with whom the Portuguese came into contact through trade or conquest, are described.
The Decada closes in , with a picture of the kingdom of Sofala, its gold mines, its people, and the relations established between this kingdom and Portu- gal. The second Decada deals with the early history of the Portuguese in India under Portuguese Governors, the voyage of Tristao de Cunha and Affonso de Albu- querque on their way to India, and the wars which were carried on by Albuquerque and the Viceroy, Dom Francisco de Almeida. The happenings in India, when the King of Cochin was at war with the Zamorin of Calicut, are dealt with ; and we are told how Burhan Nizam Shah gave per- mission for the erection of a Fortress at Chaul, and of the continuation of the troubles with Adil Shah and the Moors.
This Decada ends with a description of the work of one of the Governors Dom Henrique in India, till his death in the fortress of Cannanore. The taking of the city of Diu in the time of the Govern- or Nuno de Cunha is described. There is a historical description of the Moghuls, the causes which brought them to India and their relations with Bahadur Shah, of the reasons which made Bahadur Shah give up Diu to the Portuguese and how he repented his action.
It is also shown how the King of Calicut, seeing that the Portuguese at this time were harassed on alt sides, took advantage of this and attacked the Portuguese but was defeated. It mentions the details of a conspiracy of the King of Cambay to retake Diu, and contains a description of the Kingdom of Bengal, the customs of its people and its history.
The Decada ends with the attempt made by Sulaiman, Emperor of the Turks, to overthrow the Portuguese in India, and tells us how his ships came to Diu, where Antonio de Silveira was in the fortress which was badly damaged and how the Portuguese suffered great loss, until the siege was raised and a treaty signed. At this time Dom Garcia de Noronha arrived in India, where he insulted Nuno de Cunha who left for Portu- gal, dying on the way in The general style and subject matter may be judged from the following selection which incidentally is alsa an admirable specimen of his method and manner as a historian : — The King of Cannanore, when he saw Dom Jo 3 o de Nova return in such a few days with the ships which, as he said, were as loaded with victory as with spices, also wished to celebrate it at once and ended by giving him all the cargo which he wanted ; then in order to please him still more he sent to tell him that he should not mind that he had made little impression on the Zamorin ; for accord- ing to the news he had received, in that battle people had been killed, on account of which all Calicut was- plunged in mourning.
Joao de Nova, having been despatched from the coast of India with so many victories and the good luck which God had given him, proceeded on his way to Portugal ; and even during this journey another good fortune befell him beyond the Cape of Good Hope. For God showed him a very small island to which he gave the name of St. Leaving that place, Joao de Nova arrived at the Kingdom of Portugal on the nth. E ainda para o mais contentar, mandou-lhe dizer que nao cuidasse que tinha feito pouco dano ao Samorim : pois segundo tinha nova, naquela peleja Ihe matara por conta quatrocentas e dezassete pessoas, por causa das quais todo Calecute era posto em pranto A qual ilha parece que a criou Deus naquele lugar para dar vida a quantos homens veem da India ; porque, depois que foi achada ate hoje, todos trabalham de a tomar, por terem a melhor aguada de toda esta carreira — ao menos a mais necessaria que se toma, quando veem da India.
E tanto, que as naus que ali veem ter se hao por salvas e navegadas pela necessidade que elas trazem, pelo muito refresco que nela acham, como diante veremos, dando razao de quern foi causa disso. For this reason, if for no other, they deserve to be registered with affection in the memory of all Portuguese. But the Asia of Barros is, apart from the purity and elegance of its lan- guage, an excellent repository of ethnographical information about India. The deeds of the Portuguese had on the other hand, a true singer and apologist in Joao de Barros.
S6 por isso mereciam elas ser registadas com amorna memdria de todos os portugueses. Mas a Asia de Barros d, aparte a pureza e lougania da linguagem, um repositorio excelente de noticias etnograficas da India. Os feitos dos portugueses tiveram, por outro lado, em Joao de Barros um verdadeiro cantor e apologista. He showed, long before Adam Smith, some familiarity with the subject and ex- pressed new ideas about the future of Asiatic commerce. Many times they drink from the original sources, other times they have recourse to interpreters. They have a thirst for knowledge which is all the more admirable, when we realise how few were the materials on whicli they could lay their hands.
I, IntroduQao. THE CLASSIC EPOCH 85 purpose; for having to treat of three things — the deeds of the Portuguese, information about the kings and nations of the Orient, and the true geographical situa- tion of their provinces, — all the papers which dealt with Portuguese history, were given over to him, those of the Royal Armies as well as the accounts and letters of the Viceroys which were comprehensive, as they dealt with everything which belonged to their rule.
He has given us graphic descriptions of personages like Ibrahim Adil Shah and his minister, Asad Khan, and he speaks of the relations of the Portu- guese with other States in India. Regarding informa- tion about the kings of the Orient and their peoples, he obtained documents to verify all his statements. He was not content with letters only, but sent for the chronicles of those kingdoms written in their respective languages, as we see in the First Decada, Book IX, Chapter III, in which he relates information about the Malabaris taken from one of their religious books and from their history.
He had also with him the chronicles of the Kings of Gujerat, Vijianagar and the Deccan. Coutinho was an eye-witness of the siege in A manuscript of the 18th.